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Carbon & GHG Glossary


Pavley Standards

motor vehicle emission standards adopted on a state level that are more stringent than federal requirements. First adopted by California as the result of legislation introduced by Fran Pavley in 2002, these standards are currently adopted or in the process of being adopted by 16 states.


a Greenhouse gas known as perfluorcarbons (PFCs), fluorocarbons, or perfluorochemicals (terms which can be used interchangeably) are formally derived from hydrocarbons by replacing all the hydrogen atoms with fluorine atoms. PFCs are typically released during industrial processes, smelting, and electrical transmission.


See Perfluorocarbons

Project Aggregator

a term for a project developer that actively aggregates smaller projects into a larger carbon project pool.

Project Developer

an individual or entity engaged in planning, obtaining, management, tracking, reporting, and other activities related to specific Greenhouse gas projects (project).

Project Verifier

a third party, independent entity that is (typically) officially certified by a specific registry, exchange, protocol, or standards organization to evaluate and audit the specific details of a project in order to validate the claims made by the project developer.

Proof of Title

document(s) demonstrating ownership or the rights to Greenhouse gas reductions defined within a project.

Radiative Forcing

a term taken from climate science and loosely meaning the change in net irradiance at the tropopause. The change is computed based on “unperturbed” values, as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as the measured difference relative to the year 1750, the defined starting point of the industrial era. Positive forcing (increased incoming energy) tends to warm the system, while negative forcing (increased outgoing energy) tends to cool it.


the process of replanting trees and forests on lands that have recently been harvested, damaged, or cleared for non-forrest activities.

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI (RGGI)

a cooperative effort between Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern states to reduce CO2 emissions. The central component of RGGI is a multi-state cap and trade system.

Renewable Energy

a broad category of energy sources that can be rapidly replaced (e.g., corn or switchgrass) or that flow continuously and are not depletable (e.g., wind or solar).

Second Validator

The second validator that undertakes an assessment of a methodology element.

Second Verifier

The second verifier that undertakes an assessment of an AFOLU project element.

SFI – Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI)

an independent, charitable organization dedicated to promoting sustainable forest management through the development, publication, management, and promotion of a sustainable forestry management standard made up of nine principles, 13 objectives, 34 performance measures and 102 indicators developed by professional foresters, conservationists, and scientists.

Spot Market (Cash Market)

a commodities trading market where commodities are purchased and sold using cash and the commodities are delivered immediately.

sulfur hexafluoride

A powerful global warming pollutant that is primarily used in electrical transmission systems, in electronics, and in insulation products.


The Climate Registry – a voluntary system where companies can register their emissions.

Temporary Certified Emission Reductions

Credits issued for an afforestation or reforestation project activity under the CDM that expires at the end of the commitment period following the one during which it was issued. tCERs are issued for the net anthropogenic Greenhouse gas removals by sinks achieved by the project activity since the project start date.*

Ton – (short ton)

is a unit of weight equal to 2,000 pounds (around 907.18474 kg). Primarily used in the United States.

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